Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499


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Additional rights were also given to individuals: Wm Marshal was to be given back his castle of Dunamase and all his fees in the lands held by Meiler FitzHenry, but this seems to have been more a decision for show, rather than reality. Orpen regarded John as undeserving of praise: Chartulary of the Abbey of St Thomas the Martyr: I believe I have also eliminated Hervey de Montmorency, uncle of Strongbow.

Urnaidhe is the Gaelic for an oratory. Pope Innocent III wrote to Henry de Loundres, archbishop of Dublin, to confirm to him and his successors in perpetuity various canonical possessions. By the Irish houses had become isolated from the rest. The most important house was the abbey of St Thomas the Martyr, founded in Dublin Diarmait MacMurchada d endowed several Augustinian houses in Leinster. Further investigation may clarify who endowed the abbey at Confey.

The church of the Salmon Leap was also granted to the abbey of St Thomas; see Is this Cherachin [Cheraclun] of deed? John Warrisius was prior, and their patron, who was lord of Lucan, enfeoffed him with a messuage and a carrucate of land in Lucan, enjoining him, out of the produce thereof, to find six chaplains to celebrate divine offices for every, in the priory of St Catherine, for the souls of all his progenitors; and he further enfeoffed the said prior and chaplains with the moiety of a mill upon the river Liffey. Adam de Hereford, Knight, lord of Leixlip, did also enfeoff the said prior with a carrucate of land, in the lordship of Leixlip, for the purpose of finding six chaplains in the priory of St Catharine, in like manner as Warrisius had done.

Richard Shirman is named as prior in this deed, which is dated between the years and The enquiry was made by the undersigned jurors: Time passed and Wm de Pyro, then archbishop of Glendalough, moved the question of the remarkable canons in charge of the said church and eventually after agreeing an intervention comprising an authorised delegation from the lord Pope, it was agreed that the said church [of Confey] be equally divided between him and their church.

Ralf was himself promoted to bishop [of Kildare]; the archbishop of Dublin, Henry, [was made archbishop of ] Dublin and Glendalough after a union was made of them, and John, son of Andrew, contributed the said tithes with the said payments. Ralph, bishop of Kildare, died sometime before November, , when a licence was issued by Henry III for his replacement. No Leixlip surnames called Ralph are recalled by JC. Henry III gave a mandate to Maurice, son of Gerold, Justiciary of Ireland, to let G Marshal, earl of Pembroke, have seisin of all lands in Ireland which fall to him by inheritance of which the late earl, Richard Marshal, his brother, had before the latter had gone to war against the king.

Marshall, formerly Earl of Pembroke, his father, and Wm. Maurice FitzGerald, judiciary of Ireland, was commanded by King Henry III to buy wine to be placed in his manors and castles; to provide corn, provisions and other articles required by the king on his visit to Ireland, planned for the following Easter, and to improve the houses where necessary. King, p] [Mervyn Archdall, Monasticum Hibericum: After the death of Wm Marshall, the elder, there being no living sons of his, the fiefdom of Leinster was partitioned among his five daughters or their representatives, to give each approximately one fifth of the annual worth of the territory.

The comitatus may be regarded as a tract of land or the community of landholders on it. The eldest daughter, Matilda or Maud, who was also the only surviving one, secured territory in Carlow, Wexford and south Kildare. One area she received was called Insula, now known as the Great Island in Kilmokea, Co Wexford, on the east bank of the Barrow river, and now no longer an island. Of the other daughters, the fourth, Sibyl Marshal was dead at the time of the partition of the Leinster estate and her share went to the seven daughters she had with Wm de Ferrers.

These daughters included Agnes, wife of Wm de Vescy. There are reports of mercenary troops in Ireland to help the Irish. Mention is made in this document of Agnes de Weston and her lands in Ireland, part exchanged for lands in Eston, co Derby. Kildare appears for the first time as a sheriffdom this year, when the first council of magnates of Ireland which might be called a parliament assembled. Under the sheriff there were chief serjeants, one for each cantred, not as elsewhere, one for the whole county.

This document is very long; a photocopy is to hand. The General Index to the reference book refers to Adgarvan Thirinche as a ford on the river Rye-water near its junction with the Liffey at Leixlip. Inspectimus and confirmation of charter of grant by Wyrreys Peche to the church of St Katherine near the Salmon Leap, to Brother William, called of Kil, its prior, his successors, and its canons regular, of the following lands and liberties, etc.

There is further provision for the transfer of these rights on the death of the prior etc. Among the witnesses to the charter were: Witnessed by Sir G de Hereford, etc. Consideration, a mark of silver of new money. This document suggests it is the record of the establishment of county Kildare. After the partitioning of the land of Earl Marshall in Ireland, a seneschal, sheriff, and other officers were ordered to be created, with power to issue writs, collect debts and customs under a common seal in county Kildare.

Throughout the reign of king Edward I there was no lack of money for carrying out government and large sums were spent building and strengthening castles. Agnes de Vesey settles her dispute with her three surviving sisters over their shares of Kildare. An Indenture of agreement was made between Sir Ralph Pippard and Wm de Stacumeny by which he lets his farm to him and his heirs, forty acres of his lordships which Master Wm de Bakepus formerly held in the field of Stacumeni [Stacumny], for 20 years. From this year on the reformed Augustinians were active in Ireland, especially in the areas of the English lordships.

Various references made relating to the payment for the service of Confy, Confoy, Conefi, arising as a result of documents burnt in a fire. The roll of receipt for the term of Michaelmas, a. Naul, for service of Conefy by R. John le Decer of Dublin [later mayor], granted to John, son and heir of Richard de Bakepus, and Petronila his wife a messuage and building in Bridge-street, Dublin…; rent, 16s, payable to Holy Trinity Church, and to grantor and his heirs one penny.

King Edward I granted Gerald Fitz Maurice the right of a weekly market at his manor of Maynooth and a yearly fair of 3 days, from 7 to 9 September. William was abbot [of the abbey of St Thomas the Martyr, Dublin]. On account of his age and infirmities, he resigned in , and a licence was granted to proceed to an election, dated 8th September. Wm de Vescy succeeded his mother, Agnes, grand-daughter of Earl Wm Marshall, the elder, to her share of the county Kildare lands which included the manor of Leixlip.

In roll of receipt: There was a Viking king of Dublin called Blake anglicised ; perhaps it is he for whom Blakestown is named; and Ravensdale may also be named by the Vikings, as the black raven was on their masthead. In roll of receipt, a. Note the absence of any specific mention of a church of either Leixlip or the Salmon Leap. Was there a church of Leixlip, as such then? To hold of grantor and the heirs of his body, paying yearly during his life marks sterling to the Friars Preachers of Chester.

This seems to be the first reference [chronologically] to Leixlip as a name of the place. Hitherto, The Salmon Leap has been used to identify a natural feature not a town? He belonged to a Pembrokeshire family of this name.


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The Wogan family of Rathcoffey, who came from Picton, Pembrokeshire, in They remained important in north-east Kildare until mid-nineteenth century. The roll of great receipt, containing the following [inter alia]: This suggests the onset of a desperate financial situation for the Priory of St Catherine; see Note the spelling of Campbell; the p was added later to facilitate speech.

The Campbells of Leixlip may have come with the Bruce incursions [See ]; they were erroneously called Camels or Camils in parish registers. In Wm de Vescy surrendered his lands, including the castle manor and county of Kildare to the king, in consideration for a pardon for his Crown debts. De Vescy was childless and a few months later the lands were given back to him for his life, which was not for long. Ireland, Vol iv, no ]. Note that the barony of Carbury had been granted by Strongbow to Meiler Fitz Henry, but on his death it had escheated to the Marshals.

Moone, Co Kildare, had similarly been parcelled out, having been given a charter by Wm Marshal the younger. This would suggest that Leixlip may have received a similar charter. This was after the re-drawing of the sheriffdoms of Dublin and Meath in I, m dors. The whole county of Kildare was assigned a part dower to Margaret countess of Lincoln, widow of Walter Marshal. John Pyppard, son of lord Ralph Pyppard, remits and quit-claims for himself and his heirs to the said lord all his right and claim in [inter alia] the castle and manor of Salmon Leap etc.

Ralph Pippard, it seems, settled in Cornwall, where about this time he is a witness from here to several charters created by Edward I. He had been encouraged by the king to surrender his Leinster lands by being given lands in England in their place. The roll of great receipt contained: The Prior of St Catherine, for himself and pledges, in corn, 4s 8d. Crown policy meant only English people were given the most important jobs in the administration. They often stayed only for a year or two. Consequently, the area under English control shrank rapidly.

In area in which English rule had collapsed, the manors and villages which they had established soon disappeared. Ralph Pypard arranged for his seneschal in Ireland, Gerald Tyrel, or his locum tenens, and one or two others to deliver up all his castles, manors etc in Ireland to the King. The manor of Cloncurry was the barony of Oughterany.

Pippard was the lawful descendant of Adam de Hereford. Also included were Leixlip, Castlewarden and Oughterard.

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He was given English lands by Edward I to encourage his surrender of his Irish manors. In this way the Crown built up direct holdings in Ireland.

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Walter, bishop of Exeter, then Treasurer [of Britain], received the following on rolls, with other rolls of ecclesiastical taxation of all Ireland, at the Exchequer on October 1st, 16 Edw. II , in a bag under the seal of the Exchequer of Dublin, by the hand of Wm de Lughteburg, messenger of the King, the bag being delivered on behalf of the Treasurer and Barons of the Dublin Exchequer [Q.

The data is presented in a tabular form. To this end, an indented agreement between Ralph and John and a quit claim of John made to Ralph were produced.

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The outcome of the matter was to be determined by the King and his Council; it is not recorded. Ralph Pippard granted to Richard de Bakepuz, a virgate [a measure of land, esp. Ralph Pippard to Wm de Bakepus. Walter de Schuldam was a juror at Kilkenny this year. He also made another bridge on the Liffey in He died in , a very popular man. Thomas, son of John le Kew, released to Robert Helgru, land of his father at the Salmon Leap, whereof one acre is situate between the land of Walter Havel on the south, that of Godfrey Keteryne on the north, that of John, the clerk, on the east, and the highway on the west; an acre and a half are situate between land of Stephen and William Martin on the south and north respectively, the Rye water on the east, and the land of John, the clerk, on the west; and half an acre lies between the land of Godfrey fitz Henry on the north and west, the highway on the south, and the land of John, the clerk on the east; to be held at the services due the chief lords.

This year a writ issued to enquire if the churches of Stacumney and Donaghmore, in the advowson of the prior of St Wolstan, might be granted to the sole and separate use of the said prior. He proceeded to plunder and lay waste as he went along, including the town of Dundalk. At Ardee he burnt the church when full of refugees, men, women and children.

He died about His tenants included Ralph Burgeys [Burgess? At Castleknock Bruce took Hugh Tyrrell and his wife prisoners, releasing them on ransom. When Bruce saw the desperate measures taken by the citizens and learned that that the city was well fortified to resist assault, he turned aside to Leixlip, where he remained for four days, burning and plundering.

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So he preferred to swoop down on the rich demesnes and manorial centres of the great Anglo-Norman lords. After Leixlip, he headed for Naas a town with castles and monasteries , conducted by the de Lacys, and on to Castledermot, where he plundered the Franciscan monastery and then to Callan, on 12 March , Co Kilkenny, which was a manorial town, later to have an Augustinian priory.

Wherever they went they plundered the rich monasteries and even burned or broke churches. Initially he was quite successful, but account must be taken of the fact that the liberty of Kildare was without effective leadership after the death of the Earl of Gloucester at Bannockburn. Mortimer took over as leader of the English army early in For three and a half years the people had suffered and had to eat each other.. By petition of Council [? Prior to this most bridges were of timber, carried on timber piles, and several had been wrecked in the war of the Bruces.

The poor tenants of the demesne lands of the manors of Saggart and Leixlip petitioned the King Edward II , asking to have arrears of rent remitted because of their poverty and shortage of tenants there. The King therefore granted his licence to the said prior, to enable him to assign and make over to Stephen Tyrrell abbot of the house of St Thomas, in Dublin, the said priory, with all its lands and possessions; and Wm de Hastend, descended from Warrisius, the first founder, confirmed this assignment. Robert Bruce invaded Ireland again and threatened Ulster.

Small-pox epidemic in Ireland. From this year onwards, the Mortimers were the only English family of consequence to take any real interest in their Irish possessions. Influenza epidemic in Ireland. Great dearth of corn in Ireland. In this year a [de] Hereford of Co Kilkenny made a deed to which a wax seal of his family was attached. The seal includes a six-sided star in relief, with a leaping bent salmon within it and other signs outside the star. Before the lateth to the earlyst century, there are three prominent low-frequency periods in our extended reconstruction starting at CE, notably the Dark Ages cool period about — CE and Little Ice Age about — CE , and the warmer medieval climate anomaly MCA; about — CE.

The 9th and the 11th century are the warmest centuries and they constitute the core of the MCA in our reconstruction, a period characterized by centennial-scale aridity in the North American West. These two warm peaks are slightly warmer than the baseline period — , but nevertheless much cooler than temperate North American temperatures during the earlyst century. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author s and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Growing concern about ongoing and projected climatic change raises questions about anthropogenic forcing of the climate system and the amplitude of its response.

Improving our understanding of the climate system's sensitivity and its natural variability requires a longer time frame than instrumental data alone can offer.


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Moreover, knowledge of pre-industrial climate conditions is important to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural drivers of climatic variability. Proxy climate records, derived from geological, biological, and documentary archives, have therefore been developed to reconstruct past climate at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

Hemispheric or global average temperature variability has been a dominant recent focus of Late Holocene climate reconstructions using high-resolution proxy records e. In general, the last years depict four contrasting periods before lateth to earlyst century times: Moreover, amongst these earlier periods, the well-documented MCA has been proposed as a benchmark period for distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic forcings. Climate-sensitive pollen records can be used to extend tree-ring-based temperature reconstructions back in time, but they are often limited in temporal resolution decadal- to centennial-scale and can be affected by age model uncertainty and therefore do not generally allow direct calibration against high-resolution instrumental records.

In the following, we describe the methodology used to combine these two types of data sets to develop our temperate North America temperature reconstructions, offer a discussion of the main characteristics of our reconstructions, and compare our results with other studies of regional and hemispheric-scale temperature reconstructions. All reconstructions are expressed as anomalies from a — reference period. The resulting reconstruction is hereafter referred to by the term 'on'. Dotted line delimits the western target region represented by the annual-scale tree ring-based reconstructions WS12 and on.

The WS12 and on time series are well validated, with r 2 -values between spatially averaged instrumental and reconstructed values over the validation period of 0. Decreasing reconstruction skill has previously been noted for other reconstructions that use sequentially nested calibrations as a function of record length back in time e. We thus used WS12 as the reconstruction for — and joined the on reconstruction to it to cover the period — Annual detail and comparison of the WS12 and on reconstructions is provided in the appendix.

In both the annual and decadal reconstructions, the fitted values were scaled so that their variance matched that of the target data during the fitting period.

Leixlip – Chronology – AD

All realizations were modeled to have the same autoregressive characteristics as the residuals in the original regression. The process described above to derive the EV decadal reconstructions was then repeated in a two-step Monte Carlo design across the possible combinations of five hundred WS12 and five hundred on ensemble members realizations of the on reconstruction matched with each of the realizations of the WS12 reconstruction. For NAM, uncertainty bands were estimated to reflect error due to the pollen regional reconstruction process and error in the regression model of the pollen-based time series against D Regression error 1 was estimated as 1 and 2 standard error SE units of the regression model of the predicted y -value D for an individual predictor x pollen-based time series.

Additional uncertainty to account for the fact that the predictor pollen-based time series; x variables are effectively probabilistic estimates of the true population of x values 2 was estimated based on the 1SE and 2SE limits for the four contributing regional pollen-based reconstructions.

These uncertainty bands were then entered into the previously developed PCA and multiple linear regression equations to determine the component of the overall 1SE and 2SE uncertainty limits that was inherent to the regional pollen-based reconstruction method. Further additional uncertainty due to the related fact that the predictand D; y variables are similarly probabilistic estimates of the true population of y values 3 was estimated by the SE of the smoothed predictand time series. Estimated standard deviations were then calculated across the ensemble members for each decade, and averaged over the entire reconstruction period — Finally, the squares of the three assumed independent errors were added and the square root of this sum was taken as an estimation of total error.

We developed two reconstructions of annual average temperature over temperate North America: We maximized reconstruction length by applying a three-tier calibration scheme to long but low-resolution pollen records. Black curve shows comparably smoothed instrumental temperature values up to The dashed black line represents the average temperature deviation of the comparably smoothed instrumental data for the period — The overall amplitude for the EV's of the two reconstructions is 1. We found that the overall EV amplitude for tri-decadal changes in NAM is lower than the amplitude in the other reconstructions ranging between 0.

All reconstructions are shown as deviations from a to average. The 19th century is the coldest period in both D and NAM The 9th century is the warmest century of NAM, closely followed by the 11th century. Small differences in the transition timing between records may reflect dating uncertainty and decreasing sampling and temporal resolution of individual records.

The majority of tree-ring records in D originate in the North American West, where long-lived trees are relatively abundant and where pollen records are sparse. This is an interesting area for further research in North American last two millennia paleoclimatology, and in particular in relation to the joining of pollen-derived and tree ring-derived paleoclimate data. Only a few of these reconstructed 16th—17th century temperatures e.

A possible explanation for relatively high temperatures in North America in this study is the 16th century mega-drought, a remarkably widespread and persistent period of drought in the late 16th century Woodhouse and Overpeck The atmospheric circulation patterns leading to such widespread yet regional drought and warmth remain to be explored Woodhouse

Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499 Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499
Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499 Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499
Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499 Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499
Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499 Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499
Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499 Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499
Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499 Timelines of History Vol 3: 1200-1499

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