List of awards and nominations received by Tamar Braxton. Singer, Reality cast member". Archived from the original on January 17, Interscope Replaces Itself at No.
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Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved 28 July Retrieved June 2, Kieran Ward Music Reviews. Archived from the original on July 1, Complete list of winners". Retrieved 2 December Archived from the original on March 24, Retrieved March 24, Retrieved March 22, And then there were three. Atlanta, Georgia, May 12, December — January Retrieved December 6, Tamar Braxton gets a show".
Retrieved November 24, Retrieved 14 Dec Retrieved September 24, Retrieved September 2, Braxton Sisters to Release Christmas Album. Retrieved October 11, Retrieved December 17, Tamar Braxton leaves The Real after saying she 'stupidly trusted' someone and warns them to 'watch their back ' ". Retrieved May 22, Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 25 July Retrieved September 15, Retrieved 22 September Retrieved 14 April Retrieved June 16, Prince Demna, castrated and blinded on his uncle's order, did not survive the mutilation and soon died in prison.
By doing so, the king attempted to preempt any dispute after his death and legitimize his line on the throne of Georgia. For six years, Tamar was a co-ruler with her father upon whose death, in , Tamar continued as the sole monarch and was crowned a second time at the Gelati cathedral near Kutaisi , western Georgia. She inherited a relatively strong kingdom, but the centrifugal tendencies fostered by the great nobles were far from being quelled. There was considerable opposition to Tamar's succession; this was sparked by a reaction against the repressive policies of her father and encouraged by the new sovereign's other perceived weakness, her sex.
She had to reward the Catholicos-Patriarch Michael's support by making him a chancellor , thus placing him at the top of both the clerical and secular hierarchies. Tamar was also pressured into dismissing her father's appointees, among them the constable Kubasar , a Georgian Kipchak of ignoble birth, who had helped George III in his crackdown on the defiant nobility. She failed in her attempt to use a church synod to dismiss the Catholicos-Patriarch Michael , and the noble council, Darbazi , asserted the right to approve royal decrees.
Queen Tamar's marriage was a question of state-importance. Pursuant to dynastic imperatives and the ethos of the time, the nobles required Tamar to marry in order to have a leader for the army and to provide an heir to the throne. Two main factions fought for the influence in Tamar's court: The faction of the Abulasan won, the choice was approved by Tamar's aunt Rusudan and council of feudal lords.
They called an influential person in the kingdom, the great merchant Zankan Zorababeli. He was given the mission of bringing the bridegroom to Tbilisi. He fulfilled his mission with zeal, the prince was brought to Georgia to marry the queen in The young man - valiant, perfect of body and pleasant to behold - Yuri proved to be an able soldier, but a difficult person and he soon ran afoul of his wife. In , Tamar persuaded the noble council to approve her to divorce Yuri, who was accused of addiction to drunkenness and " sodomy " and was sent off to Constantinople.
Tamar and David had two children. The daughter, Rusudan , was born c. David Soslan's status of a king consort , as well as his presence in art, on charters, and on coins, was dictated by the necessity of male aspects of kingship, but he remained a subordinate ruler who shared the throne with and derived his power from Tamar. In Georgian, a language with no grammatical genders , mep'e "king" does not necessarily imply a masculine connotation and can be rendered as a "sovereign".
Tamar is occasionally called dedop'ali in the Georgian chronicles and on some charters. Thus, the title of mep'e might have been applied to Tamar to mark out her unique position among women. Once Tamar succeeded in consolidating her power and found a reliable support in David Soslan, the Mkhargrdzeli , Toreli , and other noble families, she revived the expansionist foreign policy of her predecessors.derivid.route1.com/amor-gardens-of-the-heart.php
Repeated occasions of dynastic strife in Georgia combined with the efforts of regional successors of the Great Seljuq Empire , such as the Eldiguzids , Shirvanshahs , and the Ahlatshahs , had slowed down the dynamic of the Georgians achieved during the reigns of Tamar's great-grandfather, David IV , and her father, George III.
However, the Georgians became again active under Tamar, more prominently in the second decade of her rule. Early in the s, the Georgian government began to interfere in the affairs of the Eldiguzids and of the Shirvanshahs, aiding rivaling local princes and reducing Shirvan to a tributary state.
Although Abu Bakr was able to resume his reign a year later, the Eldiguzids were only barely able to contain further Georgian forays. The question of liberation of Armenia remained of prime importance in Georgia's foreign policy.
Tamar's armies led by two Christianised Kurdish  generals, Zakare and Ivane Mkhargrdzeli overran fortresses and cities towards the Ararat Plain , reclaiming one after another fortresses and districts from local Muslim rulers. The chronicler of Tamar describes how the army was assembled at the rock-hewn town of Vardzia before marching on to Basian and how the queen addressed the troops from the balcony of the church. In the Georgian army, under the command of David Soslan , captured Kars and other fortresses and strongholds along the Araxes.
This campaign was evidently started because the ruler of Erzerum refused to submit to Georgia. The emir of Kars requested aid from the Akhlatshahs , but the latter was unable to respond, it was soon taken over by the Ayyubid Sultanate In By Georgia challenged Ayyubid rule in eastern Anatolia and led liberational war for south Armenia. Georgian army besieged Akhlat. In response Ayyubid Sultan al-Adil I assembled and personally led large Muslim army that included the emirs of Homs , Hama and Baalbek as well as contingents from other Ayyubid principalities to support al-Awhad , emir of Jazira.
During the siege, Georgian general Ivane Mkhargrdzeli accidentally fell into the hands of the al-Awhad on the outskirts of Akhlat. Using Ivane as a bargaining chip, al-Awhad agreed to release him in return for a thirty-year truce with Georgia, thus ending the immediate Georgian threat to the Ayyubids. In , the brothers Mkhargrzeli laid waste to Ardabil — according to the Georgian and Armenian annals — as a revenge for the local Muslim ruler's attack on Ani and his massacre of the city's Christian population. These victories brought Georgia to the summit of its power and glory, establishing a pan-Caucasian Empire that extended from the Black Sea to the Caspian and from the Caucasus Mountains to Lake Van.
Among the remarkable events of Tamar's reign was the foundation of the Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast in This state was established by Alexios I Megas Komnenos r. Alexios and David, Tamar's relatives,  were fugitive Byzantine princes raised at the Georgian court. However, Tamar's Pontic endeavor can better be explained by her desire to take advantage of the Western European Fourth Crusade against Constantinople to set up a friendly state in Georgia's immediate southwestern neighborhood, as well as by the dynastic solidarity to the dispossessed Komnenoi.
Tamar's chronicle praises her universal protection of Christianity and her support of churches and monasteries from Egypt to Bulgaria and Cyprus.
The Georgian court was primarily concerned with the protection of the Georgian monastic centers in the Holy Land. By the 12th century, eight Georgian monasteries were listed in Jerusalem. Saladin's response is not recorded, but the queen's efforts seem to have been successful: He writes that the Georgians were — in contrast to the other Christian pilgrims — allowed a free passage into the city, with their banners unfurled.
Georgia's political and cultural exploits of Tamar's epoch were rooted in a long and complex past. Tamar owed her accomplishments most immediately to the reforms of her great-grandfather David IV r. Tamar was able to build upon their successes. Tamar's realm stretched from the Greater Caucasus crest in the north to Erzurum in the south, and from the Zygii in the northwest to the vicinity of Ganja in the southeast, forming a pan-Caucasian empire, with the loyal Zachariad regime in northern and central Armenia, Shirvan as a vassal and Trebizond as an ally. A contemporary Georgian historian extols Tamar as the master of the lands "from the Sea of Pontus [i.
The royal title was correspondingly aggrandized. It now reflected not only Tamar's sway over the traditional subdivisions of the Georgian realm, but also included new components, emphasizing the Georgian crown's hegemony over the neighboring lands. Thus, on the coins and charters issued in her name, Tamar is identified as: The queen never achieved autocratic powers and the noble council continued to function. However, Tamar's own prestige and the expansion of patronq'moba — a Georgian version of feudalism — kept the more powerful dynastic princes from fragmenting the kingdom.
After realizing that Tamar and Marijke are involved Dart is described as feeling furious and comes to the conclusion "that it was not her fault. She had been seduced, cynically and deliberately, by the man [Tamar] who should have been protecting her. Meanwhile, a group of the resistance led by Koop de Vries open fire on a Nazi vehicle.
Tamar (album) - Wikipedia
Rauter is rushed to a hospital and dispatches his deputy to execute the number of Dutch prisoners known as toteskandidaten , death candidates as there are bullet holes in his car, When Tamar hears about this, and the executions begin, he tracks down Koop and confronts him, telling him "I know where to find you.
As the story continues, Koop and his group are ambushed by the Nazis at their hideout, and everyone is killed except for Koop, who manages to run. At the asylum where Koop receives medical treatment he reveals to Dart that he believes Dart and Tamar have betrayed the resistance.
Dart believes he gains Koop's confidence by telling him "I believe you. I think Tamar betrayed your group. Their plan goes smoothly, they kill Tamar, but Koop attacks Dart, and is shot by Marjke. When she sees Tamar's body "she [throws] her head back and [begins] to howl like an animal. In the prologue of the novel, before Tamar is born, her grandfather, William Hyde, requests her father Jan to name her Tamar.
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The novel then fast forwards to when Tamar is fifteen years old in London, in , and lives with her mother after her father, Jan, disappears. Her grandmother, Marijke, is slowly going mentally downhill, and speaks more Dutch than English. Tamar and her mother accompany her grandfather to the assisted living center where her grandmother will be staying. Her grandmother rejects the company of her grandfather and insists on riding only with Tamar: I'm staying with Tamar, here with Tamar. Tamar takes his death hard, and waits months to go and visit her grandfather's flat with her mother.
Once at the flat, she finds a box lying on her bed labeled Tamar. Inside the box lie many clues leading to her grandfather's past.
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