In contrast, women are profoundly impacted by decisions the statepersons make. Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to economics. Research under this heading is often interdisciplinary, critical, or heterodox. It encompasses debates about the relationship between feminism and economics on many levels: One prominent issue that feminist economists investigate is how the gross domestic product GDP does not adequately measure unpaid labor predominantly performed by women, such as housework, childcare, and eldercare.
This constitutes women's continuing industry enabling laborers to occupy every position in the work force. Without this fundamental labor and commodity there would be no economic activity. Usually the amount spent on them is merely for the maintenance of their lives and, in the case of those prostituted, some money may be spent on clothing and such accouterments as will make them more salable to the pimp's clients.
For instance, focusing on just the U. Proponents of this theory have been instrumental in creating alternative models, such as the capability approach and incorporating gender into the analysis of economic data to affect policy. Marilyn Power suggests that feminist economic methodology can be broken down into five categories. Feminist legal theory is based on the feminist view that law's treatment of women in relation to men has not been equal or fair.
The goals of feminist legal theory, as defined by leading theorist Claire Dalton, consist of understanding and exploring the female experience, figuring out if law and institutions oppose females, and figuring out what changes can be committed to. This is to be accomplished through studying the connections between the law and gender as well as applying feminist analysis to concrete areas of law. Feminist legal theory stems from the inadequacy of the current structure to account for discrimination women face, especially discrimination based on multiple, intersecting identities.
DeGraffenreid v General Motors is an example of such a case. In this instance, the court ruled the plaintiffs, five Black women who were employees of General Motors, were not eligible to file a complaint on the grounds they, as black women, were not "a special class to be protected from discrimination". In the case of Moore , the plaintiff brought forth statistical evidence revealing a disparity in promotions to upper-level and supervisory jobs between men and women and, to a lesser extent, between Black and white men. The plaintiffs in Payne , two Black females, filed suit against Travenol on behalf of both Black men and women on the grounds the pharmaceutical plant practiced racial discrimination.
The rulings, when connected, display a deep-rooted problem in regards to addressing discrimination within the legal system. While the cases of DeGraffenreid , Moore , and Payne are not recent accounts; they provide proof of the courts inconsistency in procedures and rulings on the basis of sex and race, which serves to reinforce the need for Feminist legal theory to not only be further developed, but also applied.
Feminist communication theory has evolved over time and branches out in many directions. Early theories focused on the way that gender influenced communication and many argued that language was "man made". This view of communication promoted a " deficiency model " asserting that characteristics of speech associated with women were negative and that men "set the standard for competent interpersonal communication", which influences the type of language used by men and women.
These early theories also suggested that ethnicity, cultural and economic backgrounds also needed to be addressed. They looked at how gender intersects with other identity constructs, such as class, race, and sexuality. Feminist theorists, especially those considered to be liberal feminists, began looking at issues of equality in education and employment. Other theorists addressed political oratory and public discourse.
The recovery project brought to light many women orators who had been "erased or ignored as significant contributors". Feminist communication theorists also addressed how women were represented in the media and how the media "communicated ideology about women, gender, and feminism". Feminist communication theory also encompasses access to the public sphere, whose voices are heard in that sphere, and the ways in which the field of communication studies has limited what is regarded as essential to public discourse.
The recognition of a full history of women orators overlooked and disregarded by the field has effectively become an undertaking of recovery, as it establishes and honors the existence of women in history and lauds the communication by these historically significant contributors. This recovery effort, begun by Andrea Lunsford , Professor of English and Director of the Program in Writing and Rhetoric at Stanford University and followed by other feminist communication theorists also names women such as Aspasia , Diotima , and Christine de Pisan , who were likely influential in rhetorical and communication traditions in classical and medieval times, but who have been negated as serious contributors to the traditions.
Feminist communication theorists are also concerned with a recovery effort in attempting to explain the methods used by those with power to prohibit women like Maria W. Theorists in this vein are also interested in the unique and significant techniques of communication employed by these women and others like them to surmount some of the oppression they experienced. Feminist theorist also evaluate communication expectations for students and women in the work place, in particular how the performance of feminine versus masculine styles of communicating are constructed.
Judith Butler , who coined the term " gender performativity " further suggests that, "theories of communication must explain the ways individuals negotiate, resist, and transcend their identities in a highly gendered society". This focus also includes the ways women are constrained or "disciplined" in the discipline of communication in itself, in terms of biases in research styles and the "silencing" of feminist scholarship and theory.grupoavigase.com/includes/225/1716-terrachat-ciudad.php
A Normative Theory of the Information Society
Who is responsible for deciding what is considered important public discourse is also put into question by feminist theorists in communication scholarship. This lens of feminist communication theory is labeled as revalorist theory which honors the historical perspective of women in communication in an attempt to recover voices that have been historically neglected. The writing from Bernadette M. Calafell states that, "theories of the flesh have been central to the survival of women of color and have been one of the primary ways in which we have been able to theorize about our experiences when we have been denied access to traditional forms of knowledge production.
Theory of flesh as a type of performance, Calafell states that, "the similarity in the theoretical commitments to experience as theory building, and as a point of social change through the performance of experiences, whether it be on the page or the stage, convinced me that performance seemed to go hand in hand with my commitment to Chicana feminist politics and theorizing.
Performance as one of powerful tool for expressing and explaining ideas, performance is not only come from personal experiences. Performance comes from both from body and languages. It is important to read about personal experiences, to put into different perspectives. Technical writers [ who? Men and women will construct different types of structures about the self, and, consequently, their thought processes may diverge in content and form. This division depends on the self-concept, which is an "important regulator of thoughts, feelings and actions" that "governs one's perception of reality".
With that being said, the self-concept has a significant effect on how men and women represent reality in different ways. Recently, "technical communicators' [ who? Bosley explores this new concept of the "feminist theory of design"  by conducting a study on a collection of undergraduate males and females who were asked to illustrate a visual, on paper, given to them in a text. Based on this study, she creates a "feminist theory of design" and connects it to technical communicators.
In the results of the study, males used more angular illustrations, such as squares, rectangles and arrows, which are interpreted as a "direction" moving away from or a moving toward, thus suggesting more aggressive positions than rounded shapes, showing masculinity. Females, on the other hand, used more curved visuals, such as circles, rounded containers and bending pipes. Bosley takes into account that feminist theory offers insight into the relationship between females and circles or rounded objects. According to Bosley, studies of women and leadership indicate a preference for nonhierarchical work patterns preferring a communication "web" rather than a communication "ladder".
Bosley explains that circles and other rounded shapes, which women chose to draw, are nonhierarchical and often used to represent inclusive, communal relationships, confirming her results that women's visual designs do have an effect on their means of communications. Based on these conclusions, this "feminist theory of design" can go on to say that gender does play a role in how humans represent reality. Black feminist criminology theory is a concept created by Hillary Potter in the s and a bridge that integrates Feminist theory with criminology.
It is based on the integration of Black feminist theory and critical race theory. For years, Black women were historically overlooked and disregarded in the study of crime and criminology; however, with a new focus on Black feminism that sparked in the s, Black feminists began to contextualize their unique experiences and examine why the general status of Black women in the criminal justice system was lacking in female specific approaches. This disadvantage materializes into "poor responses by social service professionals and crime-processing agents to Black women's interpersonal victimization".
Any results or conclusions targeted to Black males were usually assumed to be the same situation for Black females. This was very problematic since Black males and Black females differ in what they experience. For instance, economic deprivation, status equality between the sexes, distinctive socialization patterns, racism, and sexism should all be taken into account between Black males and Black females. The two will experience all of these factors differently; therefore, it was crucial to resolve this dilemma.
Black feminist criminology is the solution to this problem. It takes four factors into account: One, it observes the social structural oppression of Black women. Two, it recognizes the Black community and its culture. Three, it looks at Black intimate and familial relations. And four, it looks at the Black woman as an individual. These four factors will help distinguish Black women from Black males into an accurate branch of learning in the criminal justice system.
It has been said [ by whom? In addition to its age, Black feminist criminology has not actively accounted for the role of religion and spirituality in Black women's "experience with abuse". Feminist science and technology studies STS refers to the transdisciplinary field of research on the ways gender and other markers of identity intersect with technology, science, and culture.
The practice emerged from feminist critique on the masculine-coded uses of technology in the fields of natural, medical, and technical sciences, and its entanglement in gender and identity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see Feminist Theory journal. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. This section is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style.
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Please help improve it or discuss the issue on the talk page. Anarcha-feminism Antifeminism Atheist feminism Black feminism Chicana feminism Christian feminism Conflict theories Conservative feminism Cultural feminism Difference feminism Equality feminism Feminism and modern architecture Fat feminism Feminist anthropology Feminist sociology First-wave feminism Fourth-wave feminism French feminism Gender equality Gender studies Global feminism Hip-hop feminism Individualist feminism Islamic feminism Jewish feminism Lesbian feminism Lipstick feminism Liberal feminism Material feminism Marxist feminism Networked feminism Neofeminism New feminism Postcolonial feminism Postmodern feminism Post-structural feminism Pro-feminism Pro-life feminism Radical feminism Rape culture Separatist feminism Second-wave feminism Sex-positive feminism Sikh feminism Socialist feminism Standpoint feminism State feminism Structuralist feminism Third-wave feminism Transfeminism Transnational feminism Women's studies.
Shaping the future of feminist psychology: Education, research, and practice Washington, D. American Psychological Association, , pp. Looking Back to the Future: Essays on Art, Life and Death. Women Artists at the Millennium. Edited by Kolmar, Wendy and Bartowski, Frances. The Grounding of Modern Feminism. The Reconstruction of Gender in Interwar Britain. Freud, Reich, Laing, and Women. British Social Anthropology, — What is a Woman?
The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Given a long history of representation by others, what themes and techniques do Arab Muslim women writers, filmmakers and visual artists foreground in their presentation of postcolonial experience? Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology challenges the assumption that science is simply what scientists do, say, or write: This first major guide and review of the new field of Within both feminist theory and popular culture, establishing similarities between embodied practices rooted in different cultural and geo-political contexts e.
Affect has become something of a buzzword in cultural and feminist theory during the past decade.
References to affect, emotions and intensities abound, their implications in terms of research practices have often remained less manifest. Working with Affect in Feminist Readings: This has led to an emphasis on voice and speaking out in the research endeavour.
Moments of secrecy and silence are less The female spy has long exerted a strong grip on the popular imagination. With reference to popular fiction, film and television Violent Femmes examines the figure of the female spy as a nexus of contradictory ideas about femininity, power, sexuality and national identity. Rachel Woodward, Trish Winter July 05, Sexing the Soldier takes a critical look at how gender - what it means to be a man or a woman - is understood within the contemporary British Army, and the political and practical consequences of this.
Empathy may function here less to produce more intersubjective relations and ways of knowing than it does to augment the moral and affective capacities of development professionals. Yet, I suggest, it is in the ambivalences, tensions and contradictions of both emotion and neoliberalism that spaces for thinking and feeling transnational encounters differently might be cultivated. Affect at the Margins: Alternative empathies in A Small Place. As a powerful commentary on the cultural, political, economic and affective links between slavery, colonialism, and contemporary practices of tourism in the Caribbean that has provoked intense emotional responses among its readers, A Small Place offers a pertinent site through which to consider how history, power and violence shape the meanings and effects of empathy.
It illustrates how the affective afterlives of decolonisation shape contemporary subjectivities in ways that are not easy to penetrate, nor possible to undo, through the power of empathetic will alone. Yet it also points to the role that alternative empathies can play in interrogating ideas of time as linear and universal and space as self-contained, revealing how we live affectively through different temporalities and spatialities — with varying implications for our senses of possibility in and for the world.
I thus argue that exploring alternative empathies might open out to affective politics which do not view emotions instrumentally as sources of — or solutions to — complex social and political problems, but rather examine diverse and shifting relations of feeling for what they might tell us about the affective workings of power in a transnational world.
Empathy, Accuracy and Transnational Politics. Theory, Culture and Society website , Dec 22, Empathy, it would seem, has become a Euro-American political obsession. Through transporting one into the affective world of another, it is argued, empathic perspective-taking can promote cross-cultural dialogue and understanding that leads to political action in the interests of transnational social justice. Yet for empathy to do its important cross-cultural and transnational work, these discourses suggest, it must be accurate.
We desperately need more empathy.
- Pedwell, Carolyn.
- Pedwell, Carolyn [WorldCat Identities].
- A Two-Way Street: a drabble;
- Defending the Guilty: Truth and Lies in the Criminal Courtroom.
The problem, however, is that empathy is much more uneven and unpredictable than these narratives convey. How might we understand the links among affect, habit, temporality and social transformation — an Recent as well as much earlier work in Cultural Studies, and related fields, has explored the vital role certain affects, emotions and feelings might play in catalyzing radical social and political change.
As such, this short piece is animated by the following key questions: Can critical work on habit provide different, and potentially more fruitful, conceptual terrain for understanding the complexities of social stasis and transformation at the current cultural, political and socio-economic conjuncture? The Transnational Politics of Empathy March As I discuss in my book Affective Relations: The Transnational Politics of Empathy Palsgrave, As such, we have little insight into how empathy emerges and flows through global circuits of power, and the complex ways in which it transforms and translates as it travels between diverse contexts.
In the face of these dynamics, my work has grappled with two central questions: Podcast on 'Affective Relations: According to the American literar The relevance of affect and emotions in the realm of realpolitik, but also in societal power relations in general, has increasingly become the focus of scientific and artistic disciplines.
Approaches influenced by the field of affective neurosciences, for example, understand emotions no longer as the opposite of cognition; instead they seem to go ineluctably and necessarily hand in hand. Particularly in recent political events emotions seem to be on the rise as a currency — in restitutive and reactionary efforts towards exclusion and isolation, for example. The sixth lecture series of the cx focuses on the contemporary relations of power and emotions, as in the emotionally saturated technologies of power that promise happiness, or in evocative scenarios of fear and rage, but also in the more positively evaluated power of empathy and movements of solidarity.
The series investigates the influence of mediated emotions and affective attunements, potential new balances of power through the mechanization of affect, as well as current artistic and design-based reflections and deconstructions of emotional regimes. However, as these terms are multi faceted and are interpreted and applied differently depending on discipline and theorist, each panel will define and discuss their dissimilarities and transitions anew.
The ability to express and feel empathy has long been presented as one of the defining traits of This workshop will complicate the immediacy of the feeling of empathy — our ability to really feel " it " , be moved and reach out to the other — by foregrounding that the expression of empathy also hinges on " specific " cultural knowledge and experience, which shapes our perception of and responses to others.
If we accept that empathy is not merely a " universal " human phenomenon, but one that is also situated, at work in different ways in different places and situations, then empathy also reveals a fractious potential. Rather than making us merely reach out to others, empathy also immunises an " us " against those for whom no such feelings are felt. Whilst feeling empathy we inevitably also have the impression of " understanding " the other, which embeds the other's pain in our own experience and system of values, even though these values may not be universally shared.
Empathy can also lead to moral catharsis, which vents emotional tensions and doubts to give one the impression of " caring " and " sharing " the other's pain. As such, it can act as a disincentive to scrutinise one's own behaviour and might lead to inaction and the sanitation of the violence of social exclusion and structural injustices. When we all cry at the same time in a Hollywood movie, is this really an expression of our shared humanity, or are other forces at work here also? The participants of this workshop will have the opportunity to engage in a day long discussion about the construction and role of empathy in the sphere of cultural politics.
The overarching aim of the day is to raise awareness of the multiple ways in which empathy intersects with cultural politics, and to help participants gage how questions of cultural politics intersect with their own work. As such, this workshop will be useful for researchers and practitioners from a wide range of disciplinary backgrounds. The programme overleaf is designed to combine a thematic overview of the field with workshops and presentations by participants.
These narratives will be circulated in advance to all participants and will form the basis for introductions and workshops on the day. Some foundational reading has also been recommended.
Related Feminism, Culture and Embodied Practice: The Rhetorics of Comparison (Transformations)
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